Women Rights In Turkey

In its less visible, more subtle forms, gender-based violence threatens the physical and emotional integrity of millions of women living in Turkey, and billions globally


Turkish and Chinese people have historical relations since the periods of the Hun Empire and Göktürks. These relationships are driven, sometimes friendly and sometimes went to war in the history

Thursday, August 19, 2010

THE COLD WAR (1945-1991)

 The cold war is a global bipolar struggle known as aggressive Soviet foreign policy and the U.S. reaction (counter policy). This is periods of intense conflict and periods of Relative Corporation. It is not only about national interests but also ideologies. Cold war could be divided into 3 periods:

1_ Confrontation (1945 - 1962)
2_ From coexistence to détente (1963 – 1978)
3_ From renewed confrontation to rapprochement (1979 – 1991)

The Eastern Europe had been occupied by Soviets after WWII. However, only Greece and Turkey was not occupied by Soviets and they may be the next. For this reason, the U.S. President declared a doctrine (Truman Doctrine) that is the policy of the U.S. to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures. The U.S. would aid Turkey and Greece through this doctrine. This is the beginning of the period of Confrontation that is expansion and influence calls as Containment. On the other hand, Soviets or Communism was continuing to expanding; USSR made a coup and occupied Czechoslovakia. In addition to this, USSR blockades the West Berlin. In 1949, Chinese communists take the mainland China and Communist North Koreans invades pro-west South Korea. Because of this reason, the U.S. promised to protect new client states (South Korea & Iran) from external attack in a strategy. This is known as Extended Deterrence.

NATO is established by the leadership of U.S. to contain USSR in 1949. In the Korea War (1949-1955), the U.N. troops pushed North out, Korea remain partitioned. In 1950, communist China occupies Tibet. However, maybe the most important event happened in 1949, the USSR broke the U.S. atomic monopoly. The status quo moved from unipolarity to bipolarity. This was the balance of power, the movement away from confrontation. Atomic arms are a deterrent to Soviet aggression. In 1950, President Eisenhower and his Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles pursued a strategy termed `rollback`, which promised to move what was called the `Iron Curtain` separating the East and the West by liberating `the captive nations` of Europe. Communist leader Joseph Stalin has been dead in 1953. After him, Nikita Khrushcev pursued a policy of peaceful coexistence with capitalism. In 1955, the Warsaw Pact was established by the leadership of the USSR to confront NATO. In 1955, there was Geneva Summit provided important forum for the rivals` s meaningful dialogue about world problems, and I 1956, Soviets dissolved the Cominform that is Communist Information Bureau which coordinated the work of communist parties in other states. All these peace process is killed by Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. However, all these peace process is killed by Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. In spite of Cuban Missile Crisis, President Kennedy installed the hot line in 1963. The hot line is a direct communication system linking the White House and Kremlin. After the installment of hot line, some important treaties were signed between the USSR and the US in 1960s, such as Partial Ban Treaty, Outer Space Treaty, Glassboro Summit, and Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. In 1968, Soviet-American relations took a dramatic turn with Richard Nixon`s election. The National Security Adviser of the U.S.A; Henry A. Kissenger, and President Nixon initiated a new approach to Soviet relations that he officially labeled détente in 1969. The Soviets also adopted this term to describe their policies toward the U.S. In Kissenger`s words, détente sought to create ` a vested in cooperation and restraint`,` an environment in which competitors can regulate and restrain their differences and ultimately move from competition to cooperation.` To engineer the relaxation of Superpower tensions, Nixon and Kissenger pursued a linkage strategy to bind the two rivals in a common fate by making peaceful superpower relations dependent on the continuation of mutually rewarding. Thus, relations are dependent on the continuation of mutually rewarding. As a result of this, the relations between Soviets and America normalized. Arms control stood at the dialogue surrounding détente. The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) initiated in 1969, sought to restrain the threatening, expensive and spiraling arms race. The talks produced 2 agreements, the first was in 1972 (SALT 1) and the second was in 1979 (SALT 2). SALT II was signed in 1979 but newer ratified by the U.S, because, Soviets invaded Afghanistan in 1979. Furthermore, anti-communist and communist forces fought in Vietnam War from 1959 until 1975. America damaged economically, militarily and psychologically in Vietnam War. When Soviets invaded Afghanistan, President Jimmy Carter viewed it, ` Soviet aggression in Afghanistan confronts all the world with the most serious strategic challenge since the Cold War began.` Because of this, he declared a declaration which is called as Carter Doctrine. This doctrine declares America`s willingness to use military force to protect its interests in the Persian Gulf. In addition to this, President Regan`s doctrine pledged U.S. support of anticommunist insurgents who sought to overthrow Soviet-supported governments in Afghanistan, Angola, and Nicaragua. In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in the USSR. In his presidency period, there were some important events and policies. For instance, he was the first Soviet president who visits the U.S.A. Also, he was the founder of the new thinking policy in the U.S.S.R. which brings openness and restructuring to the U.S.S.R. In 1987, Intermediaterange Nuclear Forces (INF) disarmament agreement was signed between the Soviets and America. With this agreement, Soviet Union agreed to end its aid and support for Cuba and their forces withdrew from Afghanistan and Eastern Europe. 2 disarmament agreements are agreed by Gorbachev; Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) and Conventional Forces in Europe. However, peoples were not ready for all these things. New thinking policy is not supported by most of people of communist states. In 1989, the Berlin Wall is demolished and the East and West Germany merged. Moreover, the Warsaw Pact dissolved and finally, the USSR collapsed in 1991.


Ottomans divided Iraq into 3 parts; Mosul, Baghdad, Basra. These 3 cities has multi-ethnic population (Sunnis, Kurds, Shia, Turkmens, and Nestorians). So there is no majority. The direct Ottoman rule was imposed and lasted until World War I; afterwards the British influence increased in the region.

1919: Paris Peace Conference: Kurdish delegation attends along with Prince Faisal (Hashimite Family) (Future king of Iraq)

GB will unify 3 provinces, create `class A` mandate of Iraq. GB proposes a Kurdish Tribal Confederation. Iraqi Kurds wanted self determination. GB and Hashimite King opposed to this.

The first revolt began on May 22, 1919 with the arrest of British officials in Sulaymaniyah and it quickly spread to Mosul and Arbil. The British employed aerial bombardments, artillery, ground combat, and on one occasion, chemical gas, in an attempt to quell the uprising. Then the British exiled Mahmoud to India. In July 1920, 62 tribal leaders of the region, called for the independence of Kurdistan under a British mandate. The objection of the British to Kurdish self-rule sprang from the fear that success of an independent Kurdish area would tempt the two Arab areas of Baghdad and Basra to follow suit, hence endangering the direct British control over all Mesopotamia. In 1922, Britain restored Shaikh Mahmoud to power, hoping that he would organize the Kurds to act as a buffer against the Turks, who had territorial claims over Mosul and Kirkuk. Shaikh Mahmoud declared a Kurdish Kingdom with himself as King, though later he agreed to limited autonomy within the new state of Iraq.

By 1927, the Barzani clan had become vocal supporters of Kurdish rights in Iraq. In 1929, the Barzani demanded the formation of a Kurdish province in northern Iraq. Emboldened by these demands, in 1931 Kurdish notables petitioned the League of Nations to set up an independent Kurdish government. Under pressure from the Iraqi government and the British, the most influential leader of the clan, Mustafa Barzani was forced into exile in Iran in 1945.
Later he moved to the Soviet Union after the collapse of the Republic of Mahabad in 1946.

in 1958, Abdul Karim Qasim returned from exile by the military coup. Kurds demanded power sharing but it is rejected by Qassim and results in Kurdish Rebellion based on demand of Kurdish as an official language.

During 1959-1960, Barzani became the head of the Kurdistan Democratic Party.
In response to the attack, Qasim lashed out and ordered the Iraqi Air Force to indiscriminately bomb Kurdish villages in 1961.

1963, Baathist coup against Qasim.

Abdul Rahman Arif came to power, the Iraqi government launched a last-ditch effort to defeat the Kurds. This campaign failed in May 1966, when Barzani forces thoroughly defeated the Iraqi Army at the Battle of Mount Handrin, near Rawanduz.
New Kurdish demands, full autonomy. 2/3 of oil revenue must spend in N.Iraq. but this is rejected. This caused another rebellion by Kurds.

Rahman Arif announced a 14-point peace program in June 1966, Barzani accepts this.
In 1966, new government established in Iraqi Kurds are offered a de-centralized administration.

1968, Baath party came to power in Iraq.

Proposals for full authonomy, Barzani demands full independence. A peace plan was announced in March 1970 and provided for broader Kurdish autonomy. The plan also gave Kurds representation in government bodies, to be implemented in four years.
Iraqi army controlls towns, Kurds control countryside. Kurds armed, supported by USA, Iran and Israel. Kurds have bases in Iran. USA wants to support Kurds to weaken Iraq government.

1970-1975: Barzani viewed as America`s man.

Support ends with Algiers Agreement in 1975. In 1974, Iraqi government began a new offensive against the Kurds and pushed them close to the border with Iran. Iraq informed Tehran that it was willing to satisfy other Iranian demands in return for an end to its aid to the Kurds. With mediation by Algerian President Houari Boumédiènne, Iran and Iraq reached a comprehensive settlement in March 1975 known as the Algiers Pact. The agreement left the Kurds helpless and Tehran cut supplies to the Kurdish movement.

After 1979, Iran Islamic Revolution, Iran forces Kurds out.

1980-1988: During the Iran–Iraq War, the Iraqi government again implemented anti-Kurdish policies and a de facto civil war broke out.

The Al-Anfal Campaign constituted a systematic genocide of the Kurdish people in Iraq. 150.000-200.000 Kurds killed with use of gas in Halabja.
Kurds are divided over problems between Kurdish Democratic Party (KDP)(BARZANI)
And Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) (TALABANI).

In 1991, Iraqi invasion of Kuwait prompts in 1991 Kurdish Rebellion: 20.000 killed, 1.5 million reffugees.

Turkey fears impact Kurdish co-operation with PKK.
Economic problems. Must close pipeline from Iraq to Turkey. Iraqi Kurds flee into Turkey. Now crisis for Turkey. UN Resolution 688: Establishment of a no fly zone, safe havens for Iraqi Kurds. In 1991, Turkish President Ozal orders air strikes on PKK followed by ground operations. 1992: 5000 troops into Northern Iraq.

Relations between the PUK and the KDP started to become dangerously strained from September 1993 after rounds of amalgamations occurred between parties. This led to internecine and intra-Kurdish conflict and warfare between 1994 and 1996. Direct United States mediation led the two parties to a formal ceasefire in Washington Agreement in September 1998.

Iraqi Kurds have played an important role in the 2nd Gulf War, “Operation Iraqi Freedom" Kurdish parties joined forces against the Iraqi government in the Operation Iraqi Freedom in Spring 2003. The Kurdish military forces known as peshmerga played a key role in the overthrow of the former Iraqi government.

PUK-leader Jalal Talabani has been elected President of the new Iraqi administration, while KDP leader Massoud Barzani is President of the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG).

Wednesday, August 18, 2010

The Report of Inspection of the U.S. About the Republic of Turkey

The Office of Inspector General (OIG) for the U.S. Department of State and the Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG) inspects each of the approximately 260 embassies, diplomatic posts, and international broadcasting installations throughout the world, to determine whether policy goals are being achieved and whether the interests of the United States are being represented and advanced effectively. Additionally, OIG performs specialized security inspections and audits in support of the Department's mission to provide effective protection to our personnel, facilities, and sensitive intelligence information. OIG also audits Department and BBG operations and activities to ensure that they are as effective, efficient, and economical as possible. Finally, OIG investigates instances of fraud, waste, and mismanagement that may constitute either criminal wrongdoing or violation of Department and BBG regulations.

This report is about the U.S. Embassy Ankara, Turkey.

You can reach the full report here: http://dosyalar.hurriyet.com.tr/abddisisleriraporu.pdf